initiating actions that will initiate a change to the entities. IoT is a technology which interfaces things from different places on the planet. In order to gain user/services, trust, there should be an effective mechanism of defining trust in a dynamic, Before addressing security threats, the system assets (system components), that make up the IoT must first be identified. In this paper, we highlights cyber security in manufacturing and related industries. Privacy in devices – depends on physical and commutation privacy. The cyber crimes have increased as attackers see it as gaining big rewards. Tracking a users location facilitates, identifying them in situations in which they wish to remain, a valid user password. process supported by strong procedures is needed. From the study, it can be seen that the major security concern of these protocols is to perform with less computation and resist to attacks like man-in-the-middle, replay attacks, denial of service attacks, forgery and chosen-ciphertext attacks. An overview of the most important IoT security problems was provided, with particular focus on security challenges surrounding IoT devices and, services. vides a background, definitions, and the primary security and privacy goals. It is necessary to identify what the system assets are and what, the assets should be protected against. Moreover, Reference, ... Factors from both parties, fraud schemers and their targets, influence the success of committed fraud. entity) to perform certain operations in the network. A malicious attack on a ship can be debilitating and prevent cargo bookings, production of cargo documents, payments of ships dues and supply invoices that could lead to financial loss and disruption to services. As these devices are battery powered and have low inbuilt resources, it is important to enable secure and resource-constrained security solutions to secure the devices. Securing a Web service requires us to protect, as far as possible, all of its basic components, shown in Figure 3.1, and their interactions, along with the Web service life cycle, from the design to the operational phase. The task is performed by evaluating the level of disruption on the different technologies and areas under the identified man-made and natural hazards. Such criminals can tolerate, higher risk than individual hackers and are willing to invest in profitable, Cyber terrorism [21, 56] is a form of cyber-attack that targets military, systems, banks, and specific facilities such as satellites, and telecommunica-, tion systems associated with the national information infrastructure based on, to spread propaganda, raise funds, gather information, and communicate, with co-conspirators in all parts of the world. aware of the primary security goals as follows: Confidentiality is an important security feature in IoT. This work proposes Genetic algorithms (GA) for optimizing HMM parameters. Cyber-attacks are not new to IoT, but as IoT will be deeply interwoven in our lives and societies, it is becoming necessary to step up and take cyber defense seriously. The process of identifying threats to systems, and system vulnerabilities is necessary for specifying a robust, complete set, of security requirements and also helps determine if the security solution is, secure against malicious attacks [10]. They are very capable in terms of financial funding, expertise and, resources. Insiders could provide critical information for outsider attackers, (third party) to exploit vulnerabilities that can enable an attack. The development and support of cyber security strategies are a vital element in the fight against cybercrime. Cyber security is a complex issue that cuts across multiple domains and calls for multi-dimensional, multi-layered initiatives and responses. This policy-focused Global Environmental and Human Security Handbook for the Anthropo-cene (GEHSHA) addresses new security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks posed by global environmental change and disasters. The case study conducted in 2007 and 2008 the lowest paid InfoSec analyst was a network engineer in MIS/IS or IT with a round up figure of $ 76,500 per annum. other devices could be targeted with malware and vulnerable to attack. Personal gain, revenge. Industries such as manufacturing, oil & gas, refining, pharmaceuticals, food & beverage, water treatment, and many more are constantly looking to add the right layers of security, as they bring an increasing number of equipment and devices online. The psychology and politics of ownership have historically dictated that individuals and groups tend to protect valuable resources. It is challenging to implement and use a strong security mechanism due to, resource constraints in terms of IoT computational capabilities, memory, IoT services facilitate the easy integration of IoT entities into the service-, oriented architecture (SOA) world as well as service science [27]. Yet several government organizations face difficulty in protecting data because of inadequate secured infrastructure, limited funding and lack of security awareness. Common cyber-attack, Due to the unattended and distributed nature of the IoT, typically operate in outdoor environments, which are highly susceptible, tems, services, or vulnerabilities. Each new paragraph can be started with cyber security research questions and continued with answers and recommendations. In the current world economy, funding is scarce and so it is critical for security engineers to apply the most effective mitigations with an emphasis on affordability. Internet of Things (IoT) devices are rapidly becoming ubiquitous while IoT services are becoming pervasive. As well as users, governments and IoT, developers must ultimately understand the threats and have answers to the, Cyber security and the Internet of Things, The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. 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