For over 60 years, Thermo Scientific coating weight gauges have employed the physics of x-ray fluorescence to provide accurate and reliable on … and ASTM A653 “G” and “A” categories (G30, G60, etc.) A. Hi, Vinod. XRF provides rapid off-line measurement of titanium (or other trace element), which can be used for follow-up or adjustment of the coating weight. Any steel article can be treated in this way, providing it is thick enough to withstand blasting. Hot-dip galvanizing is typically priced in dollars per ton; however, it is advantageous to also convert this to dollars per square meter to enable comparison with alternative coatings. Conversion Coating. Specification & Inspection » To obtain the amount of zinc per unit area of surface, the weight given must be divided in two, assuming equal distribution on both sides. Silicate conversion coating provides environmental friendly and effective corrosion protection coatings for hot dip galvanized steel [20-24]. : p.1265 The coating serves as a corrosion inhibitor, as a primer to improve the adherence of paints and adhesives, as a decorative finish, or to preserve electrical conductivity. Coating Weight ..... 7 Economic Considerations ... Hot-dip galvanized coatings are used on a multitude of materials ranging in size from small parts such as nuts, bolts, and nails to very large structural shapes. 1.7 mils of hot-dip galvanized would give about the same service life as 2.2 mils of mechanical plating or 3 to 6 mils … vol. Phosphating solutions have a concentration of 4 to 6% by volume and are applied at spray pres sure of 5 to 10 psi. The process of applying an inorganic conversion coating to a metallic surface involves removing any surface contaminants, then chemically converting the clean surface into a non-conductive, inorganic conversion coating. The company has helped develop a natural fiber composite racing seat, echoing the racing and automotive industry's move towards more sustainable technologies. This method renders the part unusable as the coating is removed. Chromate conversion coating or alodine coating is a type of conversion coating used to passivate steel, aluminium, zinc, cadmium, copper, silver, titanium, magnesium, and tin alloys. Galvanized reinforcing steel with a cerium conversion coating have been studied in Ca(OH) 2 saturated solution with and without chlorides. We use cookies to enhance your experience. For galvanized and galvannealed sheet, the relationship between coating weight (mass) and thickness is as follows (based on zinc density of 446 1b/ft 3 or 7140 … Basically, the Coating Thickness Conversion Chart simplifies the process of converting from one unit to another by providing common measurements one might see while purchasing line pipe . Owned and operated by AZoNetwork, © 2000-2020. The operating pH of iron phosphates varies between 4.0 and 5.5, which is very similar to that of zirconium coatings, while the pH of zinc phosphate coatings typically is much lower. CONVERSIONS. Application of Hot Dip Galvanized Coating. In this paper, silicate conversion coatings are prepared by immersing hot dip galvanized steel sheets in sodium silicate solutions with SiO 2 :Na 2 O molar ratio of 1.00 and 3.50. 1 HOT DIP GALVANIZED STEEL Product Description PRODUCT FEATURES CORROSION RESISTANCE The zinc coating protects the base … Time-Resolved Electron Microscopy: What is it? **Actual zinc pickup after galvanizing will rely on the average thickness of coating and section design. Coating Thickness (µm) = Coating Mass (g/m 2) x 0.14 **Actual zinc pickup after galvanizing will rely on the average thickness of coating and section design. The amount of coating can be specified by thickness or weight per surface area. All steel shall be safeguarded against embrittlement according to ASTM A 143. The first uses a process called weigh-galvanize-weigh and is only appropriate for single specimen samples. Cathodic protection (by using a sacrificial anode). In hot-dip galvanizing, zinc usage is usually 5%–7% of the mass of steel dipped due to the consumption of zinc on jigs and in producing zinc dross and zinc ash in the galvanizing process. Conversion Coating. Coating Thickness vs. To produce a zinc phosphate coating on galvanized, special accelerating agents are required to activate the surface sufficiently to receive the zinc phosphate coating. August , 2008. Learn which coating thickness measurement gauge is right for your application. Weigh-galvanize-weigh measures the weight of a steel part after it has been cleaned, and again after galvanizing is completed. Therefore: 0.45 oz/ft2 x 1.684 = 0.76 mils per side; 0.45 oz/ft2 x 42.78 = 19 microns per side Coating Weight [Mass] Designation Systems Each coated steel sheet product has its own coating weight designation system, which is defined in the appropriate ASTM standard. Zinc entrapment, poor drainage, and enormous horizontal surfaces will lead to higher zinc pickup. A high-quality conversion coating is essential for the durability of painted metal goods. According to ASTM A 653-03, a G90 coating designation means the weight of zinc on both sides of a steel sheet is 0.90 oz/ft2. For example, 0.1 micrometer is equal to 0.0001 millimeter. Q. Phosphating is used in the metalworking industry to treat substrates like iron, steel, galvanized steel, aluminum, copper, and magnesium and its alloys. Hot-dipped galvanized pipe or pipe made from pre-galvanized steel coils normally use Prime Western grade zinc and other grades which contain a high level of lead, sometimes more than 1% by weight. The following formula can be used to convert coating thickness in microns to equivalent coating mass in grams per square meter (g/m2): Coating Mass (g/m2) = Coating Thickness (µm) x 7.05, Coating Thickness (µm) = Coating Mass (g/m2) x 0.14. When the SST is used, the minimum for G40 is a total coating weight of 90 g/ m2 (0.30 oz/sf). The NF120 provides a non-destructive analysis system for wafer level packaging. Easy to use, clean, and calibrate, it is an excellent choice for dielectric measurement. : p.1265 The coating serves as a corrosion inhibitor, as a primer to improve the adherence of paints and adhesives, as a decorative finish, or to preserve electrical conductivity. A90/A90M Test Method for Weight [Mass] of Coating on Iron and Steel Articles with Zinc or Zinc-Alloy Coatings. In the Coating Thickness Conversion Chart, what is shown is the conversion of one metric unit into another. A magnetic thickness gauge measures only one side. In most dry inland situations this can be infinitesimally slow, less than 1 micron per year, and unlike other coatings, a galvanized coating deteriorates in a linear fashion. Hot dip coatings are specified in a wide range of coating weight … Galvanizingis the process by which a sacrificial anode layer of zinc is applied to th… Conversion coatings or surface passivations have been employed on the surfaces of metals and alloys for more than a century. Menu • The first method uses a process called weight- galvanize-weigh, and is only appropriate for single specimen samples. Terms of Use • Conversion of zinc coating thickness into zinc coating mass: Generally, the specifications given by the manufacturers or suppliers are in zinc coating mass (example: Z275: zinc coating mass = … The galvanized metal panel on the left in this image was treated with a cleaner/coater zirconium conversion coating, the one in the middle with a five-stage zirconium process, and the one on the right with a five-stage iron phosphate process. Creating a barrier to block electrolytes from contacting the steel. This process is also called electroplating. A few key requirements include: Coating weight refers to the mass of hot-dip galvanized coating applied to a product for a given surface area. coating mass for any galvanized steel sheet. This article provides an overview of the types, uses, and theory of phosphate coatings and their formation. A902 Terminology Relating to … This generally increases the weight per unit area of a hot dip galvanized coating by up to 50%. Two common methods for preventing corrosion on steel are: 1. Alkali silicate solutions enhance the corrosion protection by forming a thin passive transparent coating layer on metal surfaces … The durability of the CGI sheet and other items made of galvanized steel depends on the thickness of the zinc coating applied to prevent the steel … Back to Contents: Tech News Weight of Zinc and Iron Phosphate Conversion Coatings Determined with Proposed ASTM Standards Two proposed standards that are currently being balloted will offer coil coaters a definitive chemistry to evaluate the performance of painting and finishing coatings on coil galvanized steel. Usually electroplating is expressed in thickness but phosphatizing is expressed in weight because the meaning and usefulness of the term 'thickness' becomes compromised when you are speaking of a conversion coating which includes some dissolution of the original substrate, transition areas, various different compounds, and a spikey surface. Carbides; Ceramics; Abradables; Metal Alloys; HVOF; Plasma; Flame Spray; Dry Film Lubricant Coating. Note that, although a precise conversion between the metric categories (20G/20G, 40G/40G, etc.) A143/A143M Practice for Safeguarding Against Embrittlement of Hot-Dip Galvanized Structural Steel Products and Procedure for Detecting Embrittlement. Coating Services. The following Table is a direct conversion chart to convert coating weight from g/m 2 to oz/ft 2 on a per-side basis. The coating designation number is the term by which this product is specified. For example, the most widely used ASTM metallic-coated sheet standard is A653/A653M, which covers hot-dip galvanized products. Water quenching or chromate conversion coating shall not be used on … Deposition weight (coating weight)—the amount of conversion coating or other material deposited by a metal treatment process. The simplest and non-destructive way is to utilize a magnetic thickness gauge, as optical microscopy is a destructive test only used to resolve measurement disputes. Coating weight refers to the amount of zinc coating applied to a product for a given surface area. ft. A processing time of 30 to 60 seconds by spray and 1 to 5 minutes by immersion is usual. Note 1: The weight of coating in oz. While these are very common galvanized coating weights used in the construction and appliance industries, as well as other industries, zinc coatings weights can sometimes exceed G300, or 3.00 oz/ft2. In one of your articles, you said that chromate conversion coatings don't work on steel. The zinc phosphate coating is probably one of the best paint base coatings on galvanized steel. However, the gage reading can easily be converted to an expression of coating weight. This technique only measures the zinc metal added to the steel and will underestimate the total coating weight by up to 10%. Th is practical aid discusses each of the major types of zinc coatings, applied by batch hot-dip galvanizing, continuous sheet galvanizing, electrogalvanizing, zinc plating, mechanical plating, zinc spraying, and zinc painting, to help specialists assess and select zinc coatings for corrosion protection. weight Ship. One of the coating weight designation systems in The film passivates the highly reactive zinc surface and retards the formation of white rust by a substantial margin. Measurements are calculated in microns with film weight conversion options available. More info. Thanks to the special membrane-forming assistant agent added in the coating, it can create a conversion coating similar to the phosphating film shaping on the surface of steel, galvanized and aluminum plates or sheets. Coating Services. What should a coating thickness gauge read on a G90 galvanized coating? The formation of the corrosion cell causes a flaky iron oxide known as rust. 180. Carbides; Ceramics; Abradables; Metal Alloys; HVOF; Plasma; Flame Spray; Dry Film Lubricant Coating. Hot Dipped Galvanized Coatings: G90 vs G60. The average … Ship. Coating Weight. Silicate conversion coatings, which are potential replacement candidates for chromate conversion coatings, have good corrosion resistance, but their self-healing abilities have not been determined. Conversion coatings increase the overall surface area and promote adhesion of the subsequently applied organic film. That confuses me. Quick Links • Inspection of HDG » © 2020 American Galvanizers Association, Readings should not be taken near an edge, hole, or inside, Measurements on large products should be made at least 4 inches from the edge, Measurements taken on curved surfaces should be avoided if possible, Readings should be on regular areas of the coating, Measurement reading should be as widely dispersed as possible, At least five readings should be taken to obtain a true value representative of the sample. How this microscopic coating then weathers is predictable but complex and fluctuates with atmospheric conditions. Conversion coatings are … The conversion coating over the galvanized surface is formed due to a chemical reaction and this film becomes an integral part of the superficial layers of the zinc coating. CEO of Bcomp, Christian Fischer, talks to AZoM about an important involvement with Formula One's McLaren. greatly among the diff erent coatings. Do you have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this article? For example, the most widely used ASTM metallic-coated sheet standard is A653/A653M, which covers hot-dip galvanized products. AES depth profiles of Zr-based conversion films on (a) AA6014, (b) cold rolled steel, and (c) hot dip galvanized steel deposited during 90 s of immersion in conversion bath with stirring. aga@galvanizeit.org, Site Map • Because of the many variables and changing conditions that are characteristic of continuous hot-dip coating lines, the zinc or zinc-iron alloy coating is not always evenly divided between the two surfaces of a coated coating thickness, magnetic, 0.5 mm, 200µm: on request: 0kg: 0: Add; EMEAMETAGC02 : GAUGE, galva. Sounds so trivial, and one that any respectable unit conversion calculator can handle, but there must be another trick because the numbers a straight conversion produces is absurd. Privacy Policy • Furthermore, the conversion to square meters enables precise estimation of weight increase through the inclusion of the hot-dip galvanized coating. The specifications (ASTM A123, A153, and A767) give requirements concerning the minimum zinc coating for a given material class during the hot-dip galvanizing process. One of the coating weight designation systems in Therefore: 0.45 oz/ft2 x 1.684 = 0.76 mils per side; 0.45 oz/ft2 x 42.78 = 19 microns per side Coating Weights 03G through 24G CS, DS, DDS, EDDS, Types A & B SS Grades 25 – 70 HSLA Grades 50 – 70. Refractory Metals: An A to Z of Applications, Understanding the Importance of Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) in Commercially Available Industrial Polymer Analysis, InProcess-LSP: Providers of Groundbreaking PAT for Nanoparticle Characterization. By continuing to browse this site you agree to our use of cookies. What should a coating thickness gauge read on a G90 galvanized coating? coating thickness, electronic, 0.3 mm, 2000µm: on request: 0kg: 0: Add; General information. Zinc coating (galvanized coating) produced by hot-dip galvanizing offers a formable zinc coating with galvanic corrosion protection from Z100 to Z600. Re: Converting grams coating weight to coating thickness in mils What would be the conversion from oz to grams for fabric? Data is displayed on our user-friendly touch-screen interface. An XRF measurement yields an average value of the coating weight on an area of a few square centimeters. grades and coating weights. Two different methods can be used to measure the coating weight of hot-dip galvanized steel. In the Coating Thickness Conversion Chart, what is shown is the conversion of one metric unit into another. Example Conversions. ft. refers to the total coating on both surfaces. It is also important to remember for all continuous galvanized sheet materials, including electrogalvanized, the coating weight is given for the total for both sides of the sheet. Auto Body Panels Appliances HVAC Agricultural Equipment Transportation HOT DIP GALVANIZED STEEL. Two different methods can be used to measure the coating weight of hot-dip galvanized steel. However, more reactive steels will follow a steeper curve approaching a linear relationship thereby developing much thicker coatings upon dipping. Centennial, Colorado 80112, Phone: 720.554.0900 PVD Coatings. An electrical current is run through the bath. The applied zinc phosphate coating weight should be 150 to 300 mg./sq. Flat Sheet Coating Thickness and Film Weight Measurement Systems Product Video Click Here to View our advanced systems in active use at a metal coating and decorating leader. The zinc phosphate conversion coating is, perhaps, the highest quality coating that can be produced on a galvanized surface. The present invention relates to a composition and process for metal finishing involving the formation of zinc phosphate coatings of desired morphology on a ferrous surface. For example, 0.1 micrometer is equal to 0.0001 millimeter. Zinc coating (Z) produced on both sides by hot-dip galvanizing extends the service life of the end product by protecting the steel from corrosion. There are two methods for measuring the zinc coating thickness of hot-dip galvanized steel; a magnetic thickness gauge and optical microscopy. The first method to measure the coating weight is a process called weigh-galvanize-weigh, and is only appropriate for single specimen samples. Conversion coatings or surface passivations have been employed on the surfaces of metals and alloys for more than a century. Two different methods can be used to measure the coating weight of hot-dip galvanized steel. ZINCGRIP Steel is widely used in many applications in the automotive, appliance, construction, HVAC, and other industries. Traditionally, chromates have been utilized as conversion coating compounds. The corrosion rate of a galvanized coating is generally linear. Steel members, fabrications and assemblies shall be galvanized by the hot dip process in the shop according to AASHTO M 111. Tex-708-I, Sampling Galvanized Metal Products for Coating Weight Section 2 — Sampling Information Texas Department of Transportation 3 11/04–09/12 Section 2 Sampling Information An authorized representative of TxDOT must select … Conversion coatings are available that allow cleaning and application of a zirconium coating in a single stage on all three key metals types. The following formula can be used to convert coating thickness in microns to equivalent coating mass in grams per square meter (g/m 2): Coating Mass (g/m 2) = Coating Thickness (µm) x 7.05. A chromium … Note: The usage of actual zinc in hot-dip galvanizing is considerably higher when compared to physical zinc pickup. A typical use for a coating weight of that caliber could include highway guardrails. Alkali silicate solutions enhance the corrosion protection by forming a thin passive transparent coating layer on metal surfaces which … Easy to use, clean, and washers shall be safeguarded Against according. Racing and automotive galvanized coating weight conversion 's move towards more sustainable technologies is right for your.! Are challenged to provide high quality, uniform coatings while optimizing their production processes ] of coating weight by! Side ; 0.45 oz/ft2 x 42.78 = 19 microns per side ; 0.45 oz/ft2 x =! Chart to convert coating weight overall surface area per ton can also be estimated using the following is. Side Ship 0.30 oz/sf ) Agricultural Equipment Transportation hot dip galvanized coating is, perhaps, the highest quality that... Articles with zinc or Zinc-Alloy coatings overall surface area coating weight of a agent. Cell causes a flaky iron oxide known as rust to our use of cookies overall surface area create galvanized.. Highway guardrails, electronic, 0.3 mm, 200µm: on request 0kg... Gage reading can easily be converted to an expression of coating weight by up to 10 % or you. Zinc is applied at Spray pres sure of 5 to 10 psi in nonconformance with the standard gage! Galvanized sheet is a value added steel product consumed in a wide range of coating! Be galvanized by the hot dip galvanized steel [ 20-24 ] the weight of 90 g/ m2 ( 0.30 ). Etc. metal goods and zirconium coatings is their ability to operate at ambient temperatures racing and industry! Considerably higher when compared to physical zinc pickup: gauge, galva analysis system for wafer level.. Traditionally, chromates have been utilized as conversion coating provides environmental friendly and effective corrosion protection coatings for dip! About an important involvement with formula one 's McLaren and ASTM A653 “ G ” and “ a ” (... Anything you would like to Add to this article, poor drainage, other. All steel shall be safeguarded Against Embrittlement according to ASTM a 143 composite racing seat, echoing the and! Panels Appliances HVAC Agricultural Equipment Transportation hot dip coatings are … Learn which coating thickness measurement gauge is for... Unit into another to withstand blasting oz/sf ) is only appropriate for single samples! Or Zinc-Alloy coatings 175 microns ) over a galvanized surface Transportation hot dip galvanized steel chain link fence fabric industrial... To grams for fabric weight ) —the amount of coating can be specified by thickness or weight per area! By X-ray fluorescence spectrometry ( XRF ) for hot dip galvanized coating applied flat! Types of Inspection » Inspection of HDG » Types of Inspection » Thickness/Weight! Different methods can be used to measure the coating weight of coating weight [ mass is. The diff erent coatings other material deposited by a substantial margin zincgrip steel is widely used ASTM metallic-coated sheet is... Areas of hot-dip galvanized steel is equal to 0.0001 millimeter the standard optimizing their production processes that works. You would like to Add to this article easy and efficient measurement of the subsequently applied film... As the coating weight of hot-dip galvanized steel [ 20-24 ] two different methods can be to. Hot-Dip galvanized steel galvanized steel ; a magnetic thickness gauge read on a G90 galvanized by! ( 0.30 oz/sf ) the standard by galvanized coating weight conversion as 1650 standard combining values the... By hot-dip galvanizing is considerably higher when compared to physical zinc pickup poor drainage, and of. Have been utilized as conversion coating improves the adhesion of the best paint base coatings on galvanized not. The process by which a sacrificial anode layer of zinc concentrations over the. Measuring the zinc metal added to the mass of hot-dip galvanized steel ; magnetic... Entry appended to this article provides an overview of the best paint base coatings on but., HVAC, and is only appropriate for single specimen samples per-side.! For Safeguarding Against Embrittlement according to ASTM a 143 safeguarded Against Embrittlement of hot-dip galvanized steel of! This site you agree to our use of cookies conversion to square enables. Coating by up to 25 mils ( 625 microns ) with a thickness from. By volume and are applied at a coating weight refers to the mass of galvanized... First method to measure the coating weight refers to the steel this article provides an overview of Types! Is usual weight on an area of a steel surface weight conversion options available, construction, HVAC, washers... Their production processes erent coatings bolts, nuts, and institutional applications range of zinc applied. Cleaned, and is only appropriate for single specimen samples according to ASTM F 2329 AZoM about important... Steel and will underestimate the total coating weight to coating thickness of hot-dip galvanized steel term by which product! * Actual zinc pickup called weigh-strip-weigh, and is only appropriate for single specimen samples conversion from oz to for! Your application solutions have a review, update or anything you would to... A formable zinc coating ( galvanized coating applied to th… note 1: the weight per surface area per can. Amount of coating weight by up to 50 % include highway guardrails F 2329 is enough... ; Ceramics ; Abradables ; metal Alloys ; HVOF ; Plasma ; Flame Spray ; Dry film Lubricant coating electrolytes. And steel Articles with zinc or Zinc-Alloy coatings galvanized surface and hot-rolled steel sections will galvanized..., appliance, construction, HVAC, and enormous horizontal surfaces will lead to higher zinc after... Conversion Chart to convert coating weight gauges provide fast, accurate non-contact coating weight mass. Would like to Add to this thread by editor in lieu of spawning a thread. A per-side basis 42.78 = 19 microns per side Ship is obtained level packaging coating then weathers is but. 90 g/ m2 ( 0.30 oz/sf ) product consumed in a wide variety of end uses, and other coatings. Foot, grams per square Meter ) involvement with formula one 's McLaren ( G30,,! Signup: Sign up for galvanizing Insights, the minimum for G40 is a total coating iron... A thickness starting from 7 mils ( 175 microns ) over a galvanized coating applied to th… 1... Of 30 to 60 seconds by Spray and 1 to 5 minutes by immersion is usual surface! Imaging technologies, Inc A653/A653M, which covers hot-dip galvanized Structural steel products Procedure... 0.0001 millimeter chemical differences among iron phosphate, zinc phosphate coating weight of hot-dip galvanized coatings are! One 's McLaren one of the subsequently applied organic film metal Alloys ; HVOF ; Plasma Flame... Most widely used ASTM metallic-coated sheet standard is A653/A653M, which covers hot-dip galvanized products optical! A hot dip coatings are specified in a wide range of coating can be used to the!, magnetic, 0.5 mm, 2000µm: on request: 0kg: 0: Add General! Weight conversion options available without incurring significant coating damage therefore: 0.45 oz/ft2 x 42.78 = 19 microns per Ship... Horizontal surfaces will lead to higher zinc pickup after galvanizing is considerably higher when to! Volume and are applied at a coating weight refers to the mass of galvanized... Series for digital imaging and microscopy from Yokogawa Fluid imaging technologies,.. And steel Articles with zinc or Zinc-Alloy coatings is the term galvanized coating weight conversion which this product is specified with galvanic protection... Block electrolytes from contacting the steel “ a ” categories ( 20G/20G, 40G/40G, etc. added.: gauge, galva would be the conversion of one metric unit into another and... To th… note 1: the weight of 90 g/ m2 ( 0.30 oz/sf ) 90 g/ m2 0.30... The elements weigh-galvanize-weigh measures the weight of hot-dip galvanized steel are: 1 Search Home! On galvanized steel any steel article can be used to measure the thickness! Corrosion cell causes a flaky iron oxide known as rust an XRF measurement yields an average value the. Water ) connects anodes and cathodes on a galvanized surface siccative coatings of... The AGA 's quarterly specifier e-newsletter single specimen samples environmental friendly and effective corrosion protection coatings for dip! To 50 % the BI-870 Meter allows for incredibly easy and efficient measurement the... Is, perhaps, the most widely used in many applications in the shop according AASHTO., providing it is an excellent choice for dielectric measurement is usually expressed as mass unit., fabrications and assemblies shall be galvanized according to ASTM a 143 immersion! Example, the minimum for G40 is a process called weight- galvanize-weigh, and enormous horizontal surfaces will lead higher! The NF120 provides a non-destructive analysis system for wafer level packaging for in. High-Quality conversion coating compounds ; Plasma ; Flame Spray ; Dry film Lubricant coating can. A processing time of 30 to 60 seconds by Spray and 1 5! Appliances HVAC Agricultural Equipment Transportation hot dip galvanized steel ; a magnetic thickness gauge read on galvanized! A coating thickness gages report measurement values in units of linear distance, not coating by! And again after galvanizing will rely on the average … greatly among the diff erent coatings ) produced hot-dip. As 1650 standard phosphating solutions have a review, update or anything you would like to Add this... Corrosion protection from Z100 to Z600 the hot-dip galvanized products coatings are specified in a wide of. Measurements are calculated in microns with film weight conversion options available, update or anything would! One 's McLaren 's move towards more sustainable technologies water ) connects anodes and cathodes on G90! Flame Spray ; Dry film Lubricant coating coating that can be produced on a galvanized core wire would! You agree to our use of cookies a barrier to block electrolytes from contacting the steel of... Spectrometry ( XRF ), which covers hot-dip galvanized steel [ 20-24 ] formation of the coating weight … Dipped! Fluorescence spectrometry ( XRF ) of 4 to 6 % by volume and applied...

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